One false impression was that 11% (6/56) of the responders answered that individuals with poor immune defence techniques/organisms are extra usually contaminated. Other answers were “avoiding informal sexual contacts” and “use of clean syringes”. When the ladies have been asked if they’d enough info to guard themselves in opposition to HIV/AIDS, 42% (89/211) answered no and nearly the identical quantity, forty two% (88/211) answered yes. Russian women answered to a considerably larger diploma sixty three% (ninety five% CI forty nine–seventy eight) that that they had enough information compared to Kazakh women 36% (95% CI 28–forty three). About two thirds, sixty eight% (141/206), of the ladies said that men and women have equal duty to ensure a condom is used during sexual intercourses. Of our responders 65% (134/206) answered that there are methods to guard oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS.
With the nameless design and no registration of non-public sensitive data, the research does not need to be reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Committee based on their guidelines. No data was collected from the women who refused to participate. The women had been informed that their participation and the completion of the questionnaire were entirely voluntarily and that they had been free not to reply the questions they found too non-public. The data given would be stored confidentially and no names or figuring out information would seem in publications.
Women’s Grassroots Struggles For Empowerment In The Republic Of Kazakhstan
Of the ladies who answered sure to this question, fifty five% (seventy four/134) specified ways to protect oneself. Note that the women have been allowed to give a couple of means of safety. Seven women stated they would wish to have extra kids even when they have been found to be HIV positive.
It is reassuring to see that only ten women out of 226 didn’t know there was a illness called HIV or AIDS. This corresponds to the findings in a number of other studies concerning consciousness about HIV/AIDS among pregnant women from India , China , Papua New Guinea and Ghana . Compared with the ladies in Aksu, northwest China, the women in Semey had more often heard of about HIV/AIDS. It is constructive that the media are a serious source of knowledge, precisely as in the Aksu examine and the Papua New Guinea study . That a majority of the ladies are aware of a illness called HIV/AIDS and that media are a major source of information reveals that the HIV epidemic is mentioned in public and that the media are an environment friendly way of spreading data.
Kazakh women had a tendency to extra usually attend University/Institute/Academy. Their ages ranged from 18 to 47 years, with a imply age of 26.eight and a median age of 25.
Utility Of Molecular Genotyping To Determine Prevalence Of Hpv Strains In Pap Smears Of Kazakhstan Women
To the open question regarding the primary way HIV/AIDS is unfold from one person to another many ladies gave several answers, the commonest being “sexual contact” given by seventy six% (122/160). The second commonest answer was blood transfusion, with 30% (forty eight/160). Nineteen % (30/a hundred and sixty) wrote intravenous drug use/needle sharing and three% (5/a hundred and sixty) wrote they did not know. Russian women significantly more typically attended Special College (sixty six%; 95% CI fifty one–80%) compared to 35% (ninety five% CI 28–forty one%) for Kazakh women.
In addition illiteracy is rare in Kazakhstan, which facilitate for the women to take share of the given info. Of our responders forty seven% (ninety three/198) answered that sure teams of individuals are extra usually contaminated with HIV than others. The far most typical group was drug addicts/intravenous drug users, talked about by 88% (forty nine/56) of the responders. Other groups, given by less than 10% every, were people with many sexual companions, prostitutes, homeless individuals, homosexual people, medical folks, people with low social status, and folks with out knowledge concerning the illness and blood donors/recipients.
In contrast to the research mentioned above, two similar research performed in India and Papua New Guinea reports the next proportion, eighty% and 69% respectively, of women who knew about breastfeeding as a route of transmission of HIV from mother to child. When it involves information about pregnancy and delivery as routes of transmission, across the same proportion of pregnant women in India and Papua New Guinea, as within the Hong Kong study , knew about these routes. There were fewer women in our research, who would take a HIV check if it was supplied, forty one% (CI 95% 34–forty seven) as compared with seventy seven% (95% CI 71–83) in the Hong Kong study. Greater willingness among pregnant women to take an HIV take a look at is also reported from a number of other studies [10–thirteen, 15, sixteen]. The low prevalence of pregnant women keen to take an HIV check in Kazakhstan just isn’t constructive and could be defined of that Kazakhstan has a excessive protection, 91% in 2005 of antenatal care . Therefore, lots of the women taking part in our study already had been tested for HIV/AIDS in the beginning of their present pregnancy. Considering this the excessive fee of girls answering no to have an HIV take a look at may not point out unwillingness, as an alternative it could indicate the fact that they have already got been tested.
Only 45% thought that they’d get support from healthcare personnel, and even fewer, 21%, said they would get assist from their fathers, companions 33% or associates 23%. A comparison between Kazakh and Russian women showed that more Russian women anticipated to get support from moms and partners, while Kazakh women more usually mentioned associates and healthcare personnel. Of the whole group forty one% (88/215) of the women wanted to be tested for HIV/AIDS. Fifty-9 kazakh girl percent (124/211) of the women mentioned they might tell the healthcare personnel if they were discovered to be HIV positive, 35% (74/211) that they would inform their mothers and 32% (sixty eight/211) their companions. There was additionally a bent for the Russian women to say extra typically that they would inform their moms, however the difference was within the margins of error.
Among the women who stated no to have extra children 82% (176/216), the main reason given was the chance of infecting the infant. Significantly extra extremely educated women said no, 87% (95% CI eighty one–ninety two), to having more youngsters as compared with the much less educated women, sixty six% (ninety five% CI 53–seventy nine). Of the responders eighty three%, had been prepared not to breastfeed their child in the event that they were found to be HIV positive. Somewhat more, 86%, had been prepared to take drugs, however fewer women, 68%, have been prepared to just accept Caesarean section to forestall mother-to-youngster transmission. Regarding from whom the ladies thought they’d get support if they had been discovered to be HIV positive, the far most common answer was mom, with fifty one%.
When it involves informing these near themselves a majority of the women said they might inform the healthcare personnel if they were found to be HIV positive. This signifies that many of the women have put their confidence within the well being care system, which will increase the system’s chance to cease further spread of HIV and to provide the infected women therapy. Only one out of three women felt assured enough to inform and get support from their husband, which is a problem, since informing one’s associate is a vital concern in the prevention of additional spread. This is positive as a result of these two routes are crucial routes for the general population to pay attention to.
The Second Oxford Statement On International Law Protections Of The Healthcare Sector Throughout Covid
Thirteen women did not answer the question about their age; subsequently these women had been excluded when we referred our results to age. Parity ranged from zero to four children, with a mean of 0.68 and a median of 1 child. The participation within the examine was voluntary with informed consent. The questionnaire was nameless with no registration of names, medical data or different private data. In our manuscript it is not possible to determine individual sufferers. We have a written choice from the Head of the Ethical Committee at Semey, Kazakhstan that no additional moral evaluate is required.